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    Abaddon - The king and /or angel of the Bottomless Pit (Abyss). Destruction or ruin.

    Aba - An affectionate way to say "Father", hence "Dear Father", Yisra'eli children call their fathers, "Aba". In English also Daddy.

    Abiyah - Abijah - Course of the Levitical Priesthood.

    Acharit-HaYamim - Literally 'the end of the days". The "end times" or "latter days", when the "olam hazeh" is coming to a close and the "olam haba" is about to begin.

    Acharon (pl. Acharonim) - A halachic authority of the period since the publication of Shulchan Aruch in the sixteenth century

    Achila Gassa - Gluttony.

    Achilah - Eating.

    Ach'shevei - One has accorded it the status of food.

    Adam - Literally "Mankind."

    Adar - Sixth month of Hebrew civil calendar: February-March.

    Adonai - Literally "my Lord", but used in Judiasm in lieu of the tetragrammation (the Hebrew name of God consisting of the four letters --yod-heh-vav-heh), which is usually rendered in English as "YHVH or "the Lord. Also haAdonai meaning "the Lord".

    Adonai Eloheinu - The Lord Our God.

    Lord God - The Lord (YHVH) God.

    Adonai Tzedekanu or Tzidkaynu or Tsidkenu- The Lord our Righteousness, the title for Mashiach.

    Adonai Tzva'ot - The Lord of Sabaoth, Lord (YHVH) of Heavens, Armies, Lord of Hosts.

    Adonai Yireh - "In the mount of it will be seen".

    Afikoman (al. Afikomen) - This word, from the Greek meaning "after-dish," refers to the last morsel eaten at the seder--half of the central matzah broken off and put away at the beginning of the meal...Greek word meaning that which comes after. It is represented in a broken piece of matzah wrapped in linen and buried (hidden)...A Greek word meaning "dessert." This piece of the ceremonial matzah is the final thing eaten at the Passover seder meal.

    Aggadah (al. Agada, Agadah) pl. Agadot - stories, parables.

    Agunah - A woman whose husband had disappeared, and who could not remarry without witnesses to his death....bound woman.

    Ah- Literally "Brother."

    Ahav or Ahavah- Literally "Love."

    Ain M'vatlin issur lechhatchilah - One may not initially nullify non-kosher foods.

    Aino ben-Yomo - Not ben-yomo.

    Aino Rav'uy L'achilla - Unfit for consumption.

    Aitz HaDa'as - Tree of Knowledge.

    Akdamut - A "Song of Praise" recited on the Festival of Shavu'ot.

    Akedah - Akeida (al. Akeida) - Binding an animal for sacrifice; specifically, Avraham's binding of Yitz'chak for sacrifice to God--not consummated...The binding of the sacrifice.

    Al Chet - Literally: for the sin; an important Yom Kippur prayer listing sins for which we beg forgiveness.

    Al Hanisim (al. Ha-nissim) - thanksgiving for the miracles added to prayer and grace after the meal on the festivals of Hanukah and Purim.

    Al Mikrah Megillah - the blessing before the reading of the Megillah.

    Al Netilat Yadayim - the blessing over the washing of hands before the meal.

    Alenu Leshabe'ach - a prayer of thanksgiving for being separated from the heathens.

    Alef - The first letter of the Hebrew alphabet

    Aliyah pl. Aliyot - Literally: going up. To "have an aliyah" refers to the honor of being called up to the bimah to recite or chant the b'ra'khot over the Torah. To "make aliyah" or "go on aliyah" means to immigrate to Yisra'el.

    Am haaretz - peasantry. Used by the Talmud and thereafter to mean ignorant....people of the land.

    Alman -Virgin or young woman.

    Amidah - standing prayer, quietly murmured, that is part of each daily service, alternatively called the Tefillah or the Shemoneh Esre...a prayer, recited silently, thrice daily, while standing up, the prayer of the eighteen benedictions. Amora pl. Amoraim - Speaker, interpreter; expounder of Talmudic (Mishnaic) law from compilation of Mishnah to redaction of entire Talmud, in Babylon (where the amoraim were known as Mar or Rav) and in Palestine (where they were designated Rabbi). Their discussions and teachings, 220-550, form the Gemara, lengthier sections of the Talmud that follow each Mishnah.

    Al Mikra Megilah - The blessing before the reading of the Megilah 222.

    Al Netilat Yadayim - The blessing over the washing of hands before the meal.

    Amha'Aretz - Literally "people of the land", that is, ordinary, unlearned people; used pejoratively in the first century.

    Ama (pl. Amos; al. Amah) - Cubic (Approx. 24 inches)

    Amen - "It is true", "So be it", "May it become true". Spoken after a prayer or statement to indicate agreement.

    Am Haaretz (pl. Ammey Haaretz) - Literally "People of the land"; a term used in the Bible for citizens,or some particular class of citizens; in rabbinic literature, for a group that dissented from rabbinic halakhah and rigorous purity and tithing norms.

    Amidah - Set of 18 prayers recited daily by observant Jews. Standing prayer, quietly murmured, that is part of each daily service, alternatively called the Tefillah or the Shemoneh Esre.

    Amirah L'akum - Telling a non-Jew to do a forbidden act.

    Amora (pl. Amoraim) - Title of rabbinical scholars in Palestine and Babylonia in the 3rd to 6th centuries; the amoraim were responsible for the composition of the Gemara.

    Amphictyony - A religious federation gathered around a sanctuary dedicated to God; an association of neighboring states or tribes in ancient Greece that banded together for common interest and protection.

    Anenu - a passage added to prayer on public fast days.

    Ani Ma'amin - Literally: I believe; often sung at the seder and at Yom Hashoah observances in memory of Holocaust victims who sang this song of faith on their way to their deaths.

    Anshei K'neset Hagdolah - Sages of the Great Synod during the first part of the Second Sanctuary Period.

    Apikoras - A "heretic"; one who rejects the Torah.

    Aphistemi - A person departing from another.

    Apocalypse (adj. Apocalyptic) - From the Greek, meaning "revelation".

    Apocalyptic - Ideas and teachings pertaining to the revelation (apocalypse) of the last days and the end of the world.

    Apocrypha - A Greek adjective in the neuter plural (from apokruphos, "hidden, concealed") denotes strictly "things concealed." Tanakh Apocrypha, specifically the fourteen books written after the Tanakh canon was closed and which, being the least remote from the canonical books, laid strongest claim to canonicity...The body of Jewish literature written between the second century B.C. and the second century A.D., not included in the canon of the Hebrew Bible.

    Apostasia - Greek word for departure.

    Apostate - One whose actions are not consistent with the standards of behavior set by his religious community.

    Aravah pl. Aravot - willow branch taken as one of the four species on the Feast of Tabernacles.

    Arba'ah Minim (al. the Four Species) - Palm, myrtle, willow and citron; another name for the lulav and etrog together, used on Sukkot.

    Arba Parshios - "Four Passages"; special Torah portions which replace the regular Shabbat readings for Maftir in the weeks before Rosh Chodesh Nissan.

    Aron Hakodesh - Literally: the Holy Ark; the special cabinet in which the Torah scrolls are kept in the synagogue; the Holy Ark is called Heichal in Sephardic synagogues.

    Arvus - Joint responsibility (of one Jew for another's performance of mitzvot).

    Asaph - To gather.

    Aseret Yemei Teshuvah - the ten days of penitence.

    Asham - A guilt offering made by one who has sinned against his fellow man.

    Asher Yatzar - Blessing recited after relieving oneself.

    Ashiyr - Literally "Wealthy Man."

    Ashkenazi pl. Ashkenazim - Jews of Central & Eastern European origin. The medieval Hebrew name for Germany; Ashkenazim are Jews originating. In Europe, mostly from a Yiddish-speaking environment.

    Ashrey - Tehillim 145 recited thrice daily.

    Assarah B'Teveth - The 10th of Teveth--a fast day.

    Asupah - Congregation, assembly.

    Assur B'Achilah - Prohibited to be eaten.

    Assur B'Hana'ah - Prohibited to derive benefit thereof.

    Atah Chonantanu - a passage added to the evening prayer after the Sabbath to note the difference between the Sacred and the non-Sacred.

    Athaliah - Six year rule pictures Satan's 6000 year rule.

    Athid Lavo - The coming age.

    Attiyq Yowm - Ancient of Days

    Atzeret - Conclusion; used for concluding observance of festival; word derived from "gathering" or "detention," original meanings. Shemini Atzeret is concluding day of Sukkoth; Atzeret is Talmudic term for Shavu'ot, conclusion of Omer count...A festive gathering for the conclusion of a festive season, a concluding feast.

    Aufruf - Calling up of the bridegroom or bridal couple for the Torah b'rakhot on the Shabbat preceding their wedding.

    Av - Eleventh month of the Hebrew calendar, corresponding approximately to July-August; The 9th of Av (Tishah be-av) is a day of fasting mmemorating the destruction of the Temple; father.

    Avi - Literally "my Father."

    Av Beit Din (al. Bayt, Bet) - Father of the court--judicial president in Talmudic era, and later.

    Av Harachamim - a prayer for the persecuted communities.

    Avel - Literally "Mourner."

    Avelus - Mourning.

    Avelus Chadashah - "New" mourning (i.e. for a deceased relative).

    Avelus Yeshanah - "old" mourning (i.e. over the Destruction of the Beit HaMikdash).

    Avelut - third period of mourning; the first year after death.

    Av Harachamim - A prayer for the persecuted communities.

    Avinu - Our father.

    Avichem - your Father.

    Avinu Malkenu - Literally: our Father, our King; a prayer of supplication recited on Yom Kippur...a prayer said on the Days of Penitence and fast days.

    Aviv - Nissan - Original name of the first bibical calendar month

    Avi - Father of fathers.

    Avi Avot - Father of fathers.

    Avodah (al. Abodah) - Service--specifically, the sacrificial Temple service as performed by high priest; today, referring to Yom Kippur observance and other synagogue rituals. Chasidic concept of life dedicated to God.

    Avodah Zarah - Idolatry.

    Avot Hatumah - Fathers of impurity.

    Ayin Ra'ah - Literally "evil eye"; having an "arin ra'ah means "being stingy."

    Ayin Tovah - Literally "good eye"; having an "ayin tovah" means "being generous."

    Azarah pl. Azarot - the Temple Courtyard.

    Ezrat Nashim - the outer Courtyard in the Sanctuary.

    Azazel - Meaning unknown; Talmud thus denotes the mountain on which scapegoat is sent, to carry people's sins into the wilderness, on Yom Kippur.

    Azharot - a passage on the commandments in the Torah read on Shavu'ot.

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    Ba'al Teshuva (pl. Ba'alay Teshuvah) - A returnee to the Torah--Judiasm.

    Ba'alate Eshat - A medium or sometimes means specifically a ghost or spirit.

    Badeken - Traditional formal veiling of the bride by the groom before the wedding ceremony.

    Bahir - A major work of early Kabbalah.

    Bain Ha'Arbayim - "Between the evenings".

    Bait Din - Jewish Court of Law.

    Bait Hakneses - (pl. Batai Knesios) Synagogue.

    Bait Hamikdash - (pl. Batai Mikdash) The holy Temple in Yerushalayim.

    Bait Hamidrash - (pl. Batai Midrash) House of Study.

    Bamah pl. Bamot - an improvised altar, outside the Sanctuary.

    Bar - "Son of..." in Aramaic

    Baraisa - (pl. Baraisot) Tannaitic statement not included in the Mishnah.

    Bar Kokhba (al. Kochba) - Leader of a Jewish revolt (132-135) against Hadrian.

    Baraisa’ (pl Baraisot) - An Aramaic term for a statement of law, historical or aggadic tradition which is attributed to the tannaitic period but which is not contained in the Mishnah.

    Bar/Bat Mitzvah - Literally "son/daughter of the commandment", ceremony marking a youngster's reaching the age of religious majority, traditionally 13 for boys and 12 for girls; in many congregations 13 for girls as well.

    Barchu - call upon the congregation to bless God. Literally "Let us Bless"; opening

    Word of B'rakhot preceding S'hma Yisra'el and Torah readings.

    Barech - grace...the part of the Seder when the grace after the meal is recited.

    Bar Kochba - Son of the star.

    Baruch Dayan Ha'emet - a blessing of acceptance of God's judgments. Literally "Blessed is the true judge"; blessing on hearing grievous tidings.

    Baruch HaShem - "Blessed is the Name."

    Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo - a phrase of blessing of God's Name upon hearing it uttered.

    Baruch She'Omar - The opening blessing of P'sukei D'zimra.

    Basar - #1319. basar, baw-sar'; a prim. root; prop. to be fresh, i.e. full (rosy, fig. cheerful); to announce (glad news):--messenger, preach, publish, shew forth, (bear, bring, carry, preach, good, tell good) tidings....Good news (same as gospel).

    Basar B'Chalav - Forbidden mixture of meat and milk.

    Bat - Daughter. Bat before a name means "daughter of".

    Batel B'Rov - Was nullified in a majority.

    Batel B'Shishim - Was nullified in a ratio of sixty to one.

    Bat Kol - an "echo" of a Divine Voice. A voice from heaven; literally "daughther of a voice".

    Batlanim - male householders who had leisure to give themselves to regular attendance.

    Baza - Literally "Unjust gain."

    bazar - gospel.

    B'dochek - With difficulty.

    Bediavad - (Legally valid or permitted only) after the fact.

    Bedikat Chametz (HaMetz) - Search for leaven before Passover...casting out the leaven.

    Beha'alotcha - a portion in the Book of B'midbar.

    Beheimah Temeiah - A non-kosher animal.

    Bein Hametzarim - the period between the Seventeenth of Tammuz and the Ninth of Av, "Between the Fences" or "between the straits".

    Bein Hashmashot - Dusk.

    Beinoni pl. Beinonim - of median piety.

    Beit - house. Second letter of the Hebrew alphabet ("b" sound).

    Beit Din (al. Bayt, Bet) - "House of Judgment [Law]" Jewish court employing religious and Talmudic law...Rabbinical court.

    Beit Habechirah - Literally "The House of (GOD's) choice"; the Temple or Beit HaMikdash

    Beit Haknesses - Synagogues.

    Beit Hamidrash - House of Study.

    Beit haMikdash (al. Bayt, Bet) - House of Sanctity; synagogue...The sanctuary or the Holy Temple in Yerushalayim.

    Beit haShoevah (al. Bayt, Bet) - The House of the Waterpouring.

    Bethlehem - House of Bread - where Yeshua was born.

    Beit Midrash (al. Bayt, Bet) pl. Batey Midrashot - Houses of Study, school of rabbinical studies.

    Beit Zata (Bethzatha) - Some manuscripts have "Beit Chasda". Location of pool where Yeshua healed a man ill for 38 years. Beit Zata may mean "house of olives", Beit Chasda means "house of mercy".

    Bemeh Madlikin - A chapter of mishnayot (the second of Tractate Shabbat) about the wicks and oils that may be used for Shabbat lights, and related subjects.

    Ben - "Son of..." in Hebrew.

    Ben Ham'vorakh - Son of the Blessed One (i.e., son of God).

    Bensch - Say a blessing over the lulav or over food, etc.

    Binyamin (also Benyamin) - Benjamin.

    Ben-Yomo - Literally "Of the day"; a pot used within the previous twenty-four hours

    Berachah (al. Brachah, Berakhah) pl. Berachot (al. pl. Brachot, Birchot) - a blessing, benediction.<

    Berachot Hashachar (al. Birchot, Brakhot) - the blessings of awakening recited each morning.

    B'resheet Rabbah- A collection of midrashim from the book of Genesis.

    B'resheet - Literally "In the beginning"; the first book of the Bible (Genesis).

    Beriah - A complete creation.

    Berit, B'ris - Literally: covenant; refers to the covenant between God and Avraham and his descendants.

    Berit Milah - often referred to simply as b'ris. A religious ceremony where an 8 day old male child is circumcised.

    Besamin - Spices.

    Beshalach - a portion in the Book of Sh'mot.

    Bethu'el - Virgin.

    Betzah - roasted egg, a symbol for the second sacrifice of Passover.

    Beyn - #996. beyn, bane (sometimes in the plur. masc. or fem.); prop. the constr. contr. form of an otherwise unused noun from H995; a distinction; but used only as a prep., between (repeated before each noun, often with other particles); also as a conj., either . . . or:--among, asunder, at, between (-twixt . . . and), + from (the widest), X in, out of, whether (it be . . . or), within.

    Bikkur - examining or investigating.

    Bikkur Cholim (al. Holim) - Visiting the sick--a pious duty, carried out in the past by Chevra Kadisha.

    Bikkurim (al. Bikurim) - the Offering of the First Fruit. In ancient times, this involved bringing the first seasonal fruits to the temple.

    BILU - Acronym of "Bet Ya'acov Lekhu ve-Nelekhah" ("House of Ya'akov, let us walk in the light of the Lord; Yesha'yahu 2:5); first modern movement of pioneering settlement in Palestine, founded in Kharkov, Russia, in 1882.

    Bimah - The raised platform in the synagogue from which the Torah is read and from which worship services are usually conducted; the platform is called tevah in Sephardic synagogues...Reader's stand in synagogue.

    Birkat Eirusin - Blessing recited at a wedding ceremony.

    Birkat Hachodesh - the blessing of the New Moon.

    Birkat haMazon - Benediction over food; grace after meals.

    Birkat HaMinim - 90 CE decree. Literally "Blessing concerning heretics"; request for Amidah (twelfth blessing) for the defeat of apostasy.

    Birkat Hamitzvot - Blessing recited on the performance of mitzvot.

    Birkat Hanehenin - Blessing recited on enjoyments.

    Birkat Hashachar - Blessing on awakening recited each morning.

    Birkat Hashanim - Literally "Blessing of the Years"; request in the Amidah (ninth blessing) for a fruitful year.

    Birkat Hat'fillah - Blessing of prayer and supplication.

    Birkat Hatorah - The blessing recited each day over the mitzvah of studying Torah.

    Birkat Kiddushin - Blessing recited at a wedding ceremony.

    Bishhul - Cooking.

    Bitachon - Trust in God.

    Bitul (was Batel) - Nullivication (of prohibited foods).

    Bitul B'Rov - Nullification in a majority.

    Bitul B'Shishim - Nullification in a ratio of sixty to one.

    Bitul Torah - the neglect of the study of the Torah.

    Biur Chametz - Burning of the chametz--leavened food.

    Bi'ur Ma'asrot - the disposal of tithes.

    Biynah - Literally "Discernment."

    Blech - Metal sheet placed over stove top to permit foods to be placed there for Shabbat.

    B'nai - The "son of" or "children of".

    B'nai Yisra'el al. B'nai Yisra'el - Children of Yisra'el.

    B'nei-Regesh - Greek Goanerg'es transliterates either this phrase which means "sons of rage, sons of tumult", or worthless".

    Bo - a portion in the Book of Sh'mot.

    Bocher (also Boker) - Morning (Bocher Tov - Good Morning)

    Boethuseans - A religious party of the first century composed of wealthy and influential members of the priesthood, similar in doctrine with the Tzedokim.

    Boneh Yerushalayim - the blessing over the rebuilding of Yerushalayim.

    Bor - Pit.

    Borchu - An essential part of the morning and evening service recited aloud by the cantor.

    Bore Nefashot - a short blessing after the eating of food that does not require Birkat Hamazon.

    Bore Peri Ha'etz - the blessing over fruit of the tree.

    Borei Minei B'Samim - "Who has created varieties of fragrant spices", the blessing recited before enjoying fragrances.

    Borei Minei Mezonot - "Who has created varieties of nutritious foods:, the blessing recited over grain foods.

    Borei M'Orei Ha'Eish - "Who has created the light of fire", the blessing recited over fire during the havdalah service.

    Borei Nefashot - "Who has created living beings", the after blessing for those foods which have no specific after blessing.

    Borei P'Ri Ha'Adama - "Who has created fruits of the earth", the blessing recited over vegetables.

    Borei P'Ri Ha'Eitz - "Who has created fruits of the tree", the blessing recited over tree fruits.

    Borei P'Ri Ha'Gofen - "Who has created fruits of the vine", the blessing recited over wine.

    Baruch Rishona - A blessing recited before partaking of food.

    B'erev - in the evening

    B'racha She'aina Tz'Richa - An unnecessary blessing.

    Baruch (pl. b'rakhot) - Blessing, benediction. The word comes from "berekh" (knee) and shows the connection between worship and kneeling. To "make a b'rakhah" is to say a blessing, to bless.

    Baruch Achrona - An after blessing.

    Baruch Arucha (pl. Aruchot) - A long blessing.

    Baruch K'Tzara (pl. K'tzarot) - A short blessing.

    Baruch L'Vatala - A blessing recited in vain.

    Baruch Ma'en Shalosh - The after blessing for the "Seven Species."

    B'Riah - A complete vegetative creation.

    Baruch She'aina - An unnecessary blessing.

    B'Rakhah (pl. b'rakhot) - Blessing, benediction. The word comes from "berekh" (knee) and shows the connection between worship and kneeling. To "make a b'rakhah" is to say a blessing, to bless

    B'rit (al. Beriyt) - Covenant, contract. The major biblical covenants are those God made through Noach, Avraham, Moshe, David, and Yeshua. The first is with all mankind, the next three related primarily to the Jewish people, and the last, though made with the Jewish people, brings all mankind into relationship with all the covenants.

    B'rit Hadashah - New Covenant or B'rit Hadashah.

    B'rit Milah - The rite of circumcision.

    B'Samim - Spices used as part of the Havdalah service.

    Bubbe-Meises - "Old wives tales"; literally, "grandmothers stories".

    B'Yom HaNeefchem Et Ha Omer - The day you bring in the Sheaf of the Wave Offering.

    Bund - "General Union of Jewish Workers in Lithuania, Poland, and Russia": Socialist party, autonomist and anti-Zionist, founded in Vilna in 1897.

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    Canaanim - Canaanites

    C.E. - Common Era (same as A.D.).

    Ceruvim - the Cherubim in the Sanctuary.

    Chabad - Branch of Chassidism founded by Rav Shneur Zalman of Liadi.

    Chaburah - A group of "subscribers" convened for the purpose of offering the Pesach Sacrifice and eating of its meat.

    Chachamim - Sages.

    Chadar - Chamber.

    Chadash - New grain crop of any of the five species of grain, which may not be eaten until the sixteenth of Nissan.

    Chag - Feast or festival.

    Chag Habikkurim (al. Habikurim) - Literally: Festival of the First Fruits; another name for Shavu'ot.

    Chag Haggeulah - festival of redemption.

    Chag HaMatzot - Festival of Unleavened Bread

    Chagigah - A sacrifice offered on the eve of Pilgrim Festivals.

    Chag Sameach - Literally: a joyous holiday; greeting used on the festivals.

    Chai - Literally: life. When Jews drink, they wish each other Lechayim (to life).

    Chakal-D'maCHAKAL-D'MA (Akeldama, Aceldama) - Which in their language means "Field of Blood".

    Chakamim - Rabbis or sages.

    Chalakah - Hair cut after fourth birthday.

    Chalil - Flute, means "pierced one".

    Chalitzah - This Biblical ceremony, to absolve a man of marrying his childless brother's widow, means "removal." The widow removes his shoe and publicly spits upon the recalcitrant.

    Challah (al. Chalah) pl. chalot - Egg bread eaten on Shabbat and festivals; the challah used on Rosh haShanah is round, often containing raisins, symbolizing a sweet year, distinguishing it from the Shabbat challah that is braided...the kohen's share in the dough...White braided Sabbath bread; name of the dough tithed from bread baking.

    Chametz (al. Chamets) - Food prepared with leaven, by extension referring to all foods and utensils forbidden on Passover...Leavened bread and anything made with wheat, rye, barley, oats, or spelt, which has not been supervised to ensure that it has not leavened; refers to prohibited foods during Pesach.

    Chamishah Assar B'Shvat - 15th day of Shevat--Jewish Arbor Day.

    Chanukat Habayit - Literally: dedication of the home; the ceremony affixing the mezuzah.

    Chanukiah - Eight-branched candelabrum, with a place for a ninth candle (shamash) that light the others, especially designed for Hanukah.

    Chanukkah (Hanukkah) - The Feast of Dedication, honoring Temple rededication by Maccabees (164 BCE) after its profanation under Seleucid king Antiochus IV. Begins on Kislev 25 and lasts eight days.

    Chanun - The Gracious (a descriptive name of Hashem).

    Charoset - A mixture of fruits, nuts, and wine; one of the symbolic Passover foods. Its color and consistency are reminders of the bricks and mortar used by the Yisra'elite slaves.

    Chasidim - Ultra-Orthodox followers of the eighteenth-century leader, Rabbi Yisra'el, the Ba'al Shem Tov.

    Chassid (pl. Chassidim) - Adherent of Chassidism.

    Chassidism - Pietist movement founded by Reb Yisra'el Baal Shem Tov in the eighteenth century.

    Chathan - Bridegroom. (Also Chassan)

    Chatan B'resheet - Literally: bridegroom of the bride called to recite or chant the b'rakhot over the first section of the Torah on Simchat Torah.

    Chatan Torah - Literally: bridegroom of the torah; the man called to recite or chant the ba'rakhot over the final section of the Torah on Simchat Torah.

    Chatat (al. Hataat) - Sin offering in Temple...A sin offering made by one who has sinned against God.

    Chatichah Ha'Ruyah L'Hischabed - A piece of meat fit to serve to company.

    Chatichah na'Asis Neveilah - The piece (or mixture) becomes a non-kosher entity.

    Chatzi Shiur - Half the required amount (see "shiur").

    Chatzotzerah - Silver trumpets.

    Eve - The first woman.

    Chaviv - The most preferred of a group (of foods).

    Chavurah (al. Chaburah, Havra'ah) pl. Chavurot - a group of "subscribers" convened for the purpose of offering the Pesach Sacrifice and eating of its meat...Informal group, which meets together for Jewish study and celebration.

    Literally means "Fellowship"; fellowship for learning.

    Chayah - Non-domestic animal.

    Chazakah - A legal presumption (especially, of valid property rights resulting form an act of ownership).

    Chazan (al. Hazzan) - the cantor, the leader in prayer.

    Chazan Hakkeneset (al. Hazzan) - synagogue employee.

    Chazal - Acronym for "Our sages of blessed memory."

    Chazarat Hashatz - repetition of the Amidah prayer by the cantor aloud after it was recited by the congregants.

    Chazeret - Horse radish taken as bitter herbs on Passover night.

    Chazon - Vision.

    Cheder - Old-fashioned term for Hebrew school....Chamber.

    Cheilev - Non-kosher fats.

    Cheresh, Shoteh, Ve-Katan - Literally "deaf-mute, mentally incompetent, or minor"; types of person with limited rights and responsibilities.

    Chenaniah - established by God

    Chesed - grace

    Cheshvan (Bul) - Second month of Jewish year.

    Chet - Literally: missing the mark; one of the Hebrew terms translated as sin. Chevrah Kadisha - Group of people entrusted with the mitzvah of preparing a body for burial.

    Chevlai shel - birthpangs (tribulation).

    Chevlai shel Mashiach - birthpangs of the Mashiach.

    Chevlo shel Mashiach - Messiah Himself is born into the world.

    Chevra - Friendship group, smaller and less formal than Chavurah.

    Chevrah Kadisha - Group of people entrusted with the mitzvah of preparing a body for burial.

    Chiliastic - Pertaining to the Christian doctrine that Mashiach will reign for a

    1000 years; Also called millenarian.

    Chilul HaShem - Profanation of the Divine Name.

    Chinuch - Torah education (of minors).

    Chof - The eleventh letter of the Hebrew alphabet ("k" sound).

    Chok - Biblical decree.

    Chokmah (al. Hokhmah) - Wisdom; skillful, wisely, wit.

    Chol - Non-sacred; ordinary, mundane.

    Cholam - Hebrew vowel with "o" sound.

    Chol Hamoed - Ordinary part of the festival--days in the middle of Pesach or Sukkot when work is allowed...weekdays of the Festival.

    Choson - Groom.

    Chozer Veniyur - reawakening of non-kosher food that has been nullified.

    Chukat - a portion in the Book of Numbers.

    Chulent - A hot stew traditionally served at the Shabbat meal.

    Chullin - Unconsecrated.

    Chumash pl. Chumashim - one of the Five Books of the Torah.

    Chumra (pl. Chumrot) - Stringent application

    Chuppah (al. Chupah, Huppah) - Canopy under which pair stand at wedding ceremony, symbol of home to be established...Canopy which represents the honeymoon chamber.

    Churban - The destruction of the first or the second Temple.

    Chutzpah - Boldness, audacity, insolence, nerve, gall, or a combination thereof,

    weighted according to the situational need.

    Cohen Hagadol - The high priest.

    Cohen (pl. Cohanim) - Priest (in the Temple or Mishkan)

    Consecration - Ceremony marking the beginning of a child's formal Jewish education, often held on Simchat Torah.

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    Da'ath - #1847. da'ath, dah'-ath; from H3045; knowledge:--cunning, [ig-] norantly, know(-ledge), [un-] awares (wittingly).

    Dabar - Word

    Dabar God - Word of God

    Dag Tameh - Non-kosher fish.

    Dalet - The fourth letter of the Hebrew alphabet ("d" sound).

    Dam - Blood.

    Daniel - Daniel.

    Darash - #1875. darash, daw-rash'; a prim. root; prop. to tread or frequent; usually to follow (for pursuit or search); by impl. to seek or ask; spec. to worship:--ask, X at all, care for, X diligently, inquire, make inquisition, [necro-] mancer, question, require, search, seek [for, out], X surely.

    Davar Charif - Sharp food.

    Davar Chashuv - Object of importance.

    Davar Gush - Solid food.

    Davar Hama'amid - Something that solidifies or jells food.

    Davar She'biminyan - Object sold by unit.

    Davar Sheyesh Lo Matirim - Food that will, in time, become permitted.

    Daven - The Yiddish word meaning "pray." Davening--"praying".

    Dayan -Halachic decisor or judge.

    Dayenu - Literally: It would have been enough for us; name of a popular seder song.

    Dayyan - Member of a rabbinical court.

    Defilement - ritual impurity.

    Derashah - A sermon or lecture.

    Derech Achila - Normal manner of eating.

    Derush (pl. Derushim) - (a) Scholarly discourse, spoken or written, to inspire and instruct; (b) an instance of derashah.

    D'varim - Book of Deuteronomy.

    Devar Torah - Literally: a word of Torah; follows the Torah reading in a worship service, taking the form of a sermon, talk, explication, story, discussion, or program.

    D'Heteira - Of permitted (foods).

    D'Himmi - "Protected" in Arabic; the legal status, inferior but protected by the ruling power, of the "People of the Book" (Christians and Jews) in Islamic lands.

    Diaspora - Jewish communities outside of Yisra'el.

    Dibre HaYamin - the events of the days.

    Din pl. Dinim - A secular or religious law, a legal decision, or lawsuit, Halachah law.

    Dinim - Laws.

    Din-Torah (pl. Dinei-torah) Legal decision concerning Torah.

    Divrei-HaYamim Alef - Book of 1 Chronicles

    Divrei-HaYamim Bet - Book of 2 Chronicles

    D'Issura - Of forbidden (foods).

    Divrei Ivrei Kabbalah - A mitzvah whose source is the Books of the Prophets or the Ketuvim; not to be confused with Kabbalah.

    Divrei Torah - Mitzvah deoraysa; (b) a law given orally to Moshe Rabbeinu at Sinai; (also: discourse or conversation on Torah subjects).

    Doresh El Hamatim - One who inquires of the dead.

    Dra-Chei-Chah - "Show me thy ways".

    Drash (pl. Drashot) - Sermon, teaching, bible study.

    Drash Or Midrash (Ashk: Midrash) - One of the four modes of rabbinic interpretation of a text.

    Dreidel (Trendel) - A top used on Hanukkah--Hebrew: S'vivon.

    Duchan - the stand in front of the ark in the synagogue from which the kohanim bless the congregation.

    Duchka D'Sakina - The pressure of a knife on the food it cuts.

    D'var Issur - Prohibited matter.

    D'veikus - Attachment (to God).

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    Ebionites - A Y'hudaho-Christian sect in the 2nd -4th Centuries CE; accepted much of Mosaic Torah (circumcision, Sabbath, etc.) but rejected sacrifices; accepted Yeshua as Mashiach but not his divinity; opposed the doctrines of Paul. The Jewish believers from the school of Shammai were called the Ebionites.

    Efrayim Ephraim - One of the two sons of Yosef the son of the patriarch Ya'akov, hense a half-tribe. Also a town northeast of Yerushalayim. Suffering Servant.

    Ephrati - Ephrathite.

    Ephratitm - Ephrathites.

    Efshar L'Sochto Assur - The non-kosher taste cannot be extracted from the mixture.

    Eglah Arufah - "the heifer-of-the-broken-neck" prescribed in case of an unsolved murder.

    Echad - Literally "One." A numeral from H258; properly united, that is, one; unique or (as an ordinal) first: - a, alike, alone, altogether, and, any (-thing), apiece, a certain [dai-] ly, each (one), + eleven, every, few, first, + highway, a man, once, one, only, other, some, together.

    E'dah -Congregation

    Eidut - Bracelets, testimony.

    Ein Kelohenu - "There is no simile of our Lord..." a passage recited after the morning prayer.

    Eiver Min HaChai - A limb from a living creature.

    Ela Gavar -The top overpowers.

    El Erech Apaim - a prayer mentioning the thirteen Divine Attributes.

    Eli - My God.

    Eli! Eli! L'mah Sh'vaktani? Which means "My God! My God! Why have you deserted me?"

    Eliy'ezer - comforter, helper, servant.

    El Hakabod - the God of Glory or the Glory of God

    El Malei Rachamim - Literally: God, full of compassion; memorial prayer.

    Eloah - Literally: Living God

    El Shaddai - Literally: God or Lord Almighty

    El Elyon - Most High God

    God (al. Eloheinu)- God.

    God acheirim - Other (false) gods.

    Elokai Netzor - a passage of personal requests recited upon the conclusions of the silent prayer.

    Elul -Twelfth month of the Hebrew calendar, corresponding approx. to August- September.

    Elyon - Most High - HaElyon - The Most High

    Em - Literally "Mother."

    Emet - Literally "Truth."

    Emor - a portion in the Book of Vayikra (Vayikra).

    Emunah Faith; belief, trust in Hashem.

    Episkopos - #1985. episkopos, ep-is'-kop-os; from G1909 and G4649 (in the sense of G1983); a superintendent, i.e. officer in gen. charge of a (or the) church (lit. or fig.):--bishop, overseer.

    Episunagoge - #1997. episunagoge, ep-ee-soon-ag-o-gay'; from G1996; a complete collection; spec. a meeting (for worship):--assembling (gathering) together.

    Ereb - #6153. 'ereb, eh'-reb; from H6150; dusk:-- + day, even (-ing, tide), night. (al. Erev) the day before, the eve of.

    Eretz - The "land of."

    Eretz Y'Yisra'el - The land of Yisra'el.

    Erev - Dusk, eve of, day before. Literally "Evening"; the day preceding the Sabbath or a holy day.

    Erv Yom Tove - On the eve of the festival.

    Erusha - Betrothed virgin.

    Erusin - In ancient times, the formal engagement ceremony before marriage.

    Eruv - Evening; and an act of legal "mixing", the means of "mixing".

    Eruv Chatzerot - an act of legal "mixing" to enable transferring from one "private domain" to another on Sabbath.

    Eruv Tavshilin - an act of "mixing" the cooked food prepared for a festival and the Sabbath next to it in order to enable cooking and baking on the festival for the Sabbath.

    Et Ha-Or - Literally "The light."

    Etrog - Citron fruit; with the lulav, it is the symbol of Sukkot...citron fruit taken as one of the four species on the Feast of Tabernacles.

    Eusebes - #2152. eusebes, yoo-seb-ace'; from G2095 and G4576; well-reverent, i.e. pious:--devout, godly.

    Eved - Servant.

    Even - Rock.

    Even Shetiyah - the Foundation Stone in the Sanctuary.

    Ezrat Nashim - the outer Courtyard in the Sanctuary. Azarah pl. Azarot - the Temple Courtyard.

    Exilarch - "Head of the Exile" (Rosh ha-Golah in Hebrew, Resh Galuta in Aramaic): lay leader of certain Jewish communities, particularly in Babylonia.

    Ezer- Literally "Helpmeet."

    Ezrat Nashim (Azarah pl. Azarot) - The outer courtyard in the Sanctuary. The Temple courtyard.

    Ezrechah - Help.

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    Fleishig - Foods derived from meat or meat products.

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    Gabai pl. Gaba'im - the leader of the Synagogue.

    Gabriy'el - Gabriel

    Galiylah - Galilee

    Gan Eden - The Garden of Eden...paradise.

    Gaon pl. Ge'onim - (Excellency) Reverential title of heads of Talmudic academies of Sura and Pumbedita, Babylonia. Rabbi Eliyah of Wilna was accorded that title in the eighteenth century...the head of a Torah Center in Babylonia in the post-Talmudic era.

    Gehinnom (al. Gehinom) - Literally: Valley of Hinnom; a temporary place of punishment in the afterlife...Hell.

    Gelt - Yiddish term for money; traditionally given as a Hanukah gift and used for the dreidel game.

    Gemar Chatimah Tovah - Literally: May the final sealing be good; traditional greeting from the end of Rosh haShanah through Yom Kippur.

    Gemara - Collection of legal and ethical discussions of the rabbis of the third through the fifth centuries, edited about 500 CE; together with the Mishnah forms the Talmud.

    Gematria - Finding meanings in the numerical value of Hebrew letters and words.

    Ger - #1616. ger, gare; from H1481; prop. a guest; by impl. a foreigner:--alien, sojourner, stranger...Gioret pl. gerim - The masculine and feminine forms of the Hebrew term for convert. Bible believing Gentile.

    Ger Sheker - Proselyte who declares full conversion for ulterior motives.

    Ger Toshav - Proselyte who accepts monotheism and the Noachide laws, and who receives courtesies and privileges.

    Ger Tzedek - Full convert of true conviction, in all respects to be considered a Jew.

    Gerut - The process of conversion.

    Get - Religious divorce; the word is used to refer to a Jewish bill of divorcement.

    Gevurot Geshamim - "the Power of Rain", a Praise to God for the revelation of His powers in Nature, added to the silent prayer.

    Gezerah - Laws or traditions added by the P'rushim as fences around the existing Law in an attempt to prevent it from being broken.

    God (names) - Adonai, God, El Shaddai, YHVH, Hakadosh Baruch Hu, Ribono shel Olam, Harachaman, Avinu Shebashamayim.

    Go'el - Redeemer.

    Golyat - Goliath.

    Go'el Yisra'el - "The Redeemer of Yisra'el", one of the eighteen benedictions of the Amidah prayer.

    Goyim - foreigner. In the context here, it refers to non-Jewish believers in Yeshua HaMashiach.

    Grogger (al. Greegers, Graggers) - Noisemaker used to drown out Haman's name during the reading of the Megillah on Purim.

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    HaAv - The Father.

    Ha Melech - The king.

    Ha'azinu, the song of. A portion of D'varim.

    Haben - The son.

    Hadas - a myrtle branch taken as one of the four species on the Feast of Tabernacles.

    El HaElyon - The Most High God

    Haftorah (al. Haftarah) pl. Haftarot - Selection from the Prophets read or chanted after the weekly Torah portion during the synagogue service on Sabbath and holidays.

    Hag - Holiday, festival.

    Hag haMatzah - The Festival of Unleavened Bread.

    Hagadol - The great.

    Hagah - #1897. hagah, haw-gaw'; a prim. root [comp. H1901]; to murmur (in pleasure or anger); by impl. to ponder:--imagine, meditate, mourn, mutter, roar, X sore, speak, study, talk, utter.

    Hagbalah - Days of Abstinence.

    Haggadah (al. Hagadah, Agada, Agadah, Aggadah) pl. Haggadot - A general Hebrew term for utterance, applied specifically to the nonlegal portion of rabbinic literature. It is also the title of the text recited at the festive meal (seder) on the first two nights of Passover...Literally: telling; book in which the Passover story is retold and the seder ritual is outlined...the tale of the Sh'mot from Egypt as read at the Seder Night.

    Hagai - Haggai

    Hagigah (al. Chagigah) - a sacrifice offered on the eve of Pilgrim Festivals.

    Hagomel - A blessing of thanksgiving for deliverance from perils.

    halacha - walk.

    Hakafah pl. Hakafot - The carrying of the Torah scrolls in a procession around the sanctuary...the circling of the Altar in the Sanctuary or the Bimah in the Synagogue.

    Hak-heyl - assemble-ceremony of reading parts of Torah every seventh Sukkot.

    Hakkafah - Circle dance (one circuit) with the Torah Scroll.

    Halakhah (al. Halachah, Chalakah) - The way one goes; the word for law, or for the purely legal and regulatory portions of the Talmud, and of all Jewish lore...Jewish law.

    Halakhah Lemoshe Misinai (al. Halachah, Chalakah) - a Law given to Moshe on Sinai and not written explicitly in the Torah.


    Hallel (al. Halel) - Special psalms of praise, recited or sung on the festivals....Tehillim 113 - 118.

    Hamantashen - Filled three-cornered pastries supposed to represent Haman's hat, traditionally eaten on Purim.

    Hamavdil - the blessing of Havdalah.

    HaMashiach - the Messiah

    HaMetz (Chametz) - leaven.

    HaMelech - "The King". The coronation day of the Mashiach. The same as Rosh haShanahh.

    Hanukah (al. Chanukah)- Literally: dedication; name of the winter holiday commemorating the Maccabean victory over the Syrians in 165 BCE.

    Haptomai - #680. haptomai, hap'-tom-ahee; reflex. of G681; prop. to attach oneself to, i.e. to touch (in many implied relations):--touch.

    Harpazo- #726. harpazo, har-pad'-zo; from a der. of G138; to seize (in arious applications):--catch (away, up), pluck, pull, take (by force).

    HaSatan - The Adversary (same as Satan).

    HaShem - the Name of

    Hatacha - Spiritual Application.

    Hatafat Dam Berit - Taking a single drop of blood from the penis as a sign f the covenant, necessary in the conversion of an adult male already circumcised.

    Hatarat Nedarim - the repeal of vows.

    Hatikva - The hope.

    Hatov Vehametive- the fourth blessing of Birkat haMazon -- "He Who is ood and bestows goodness..".

    Havdalah - Literally: separation; ceremony that marks the end of the Sabbath and the beginning of the week...the blessing over wine to mark the difference between the Sabbath and the weekdays.

    Hayom Harat Olam - verses recited during the Rosh haShanah mussaf prayer.

    Hechag - Literally: the holiday; one of the names for Sukkot.

    Hechal - Hall of the Sanctuary.

    Heretic - One whose beliefs do not accord with those of the established religion to which he claims adherence.

    Hester Panim - the withdrawal of Divine Favor.

    Heter - permission, permit.

    Heter Iska - "transaction permit" allowing a money lender to take interest by making him a partner of the borrower sharing his profits.

    High Holy Days - A ten day period from Rosh haShanah to Yom Kippur.

    Hillel - The most prominent Jewish teacher of the first century (30 BCE - 10 CE).

    Hilula - a celebration of memorial.

    Holocaust (hashoah) - a Jewish sacrificial offering that is burnt completely on an altar

    Holy of Holies - most Holy inner part of the Sanctuary.

    Homiletic - The art of preaching or public persuasion.

    Hoshanah - Chant of "Save us, Adonai." said while carrying Torah in procession.

    Hoshana Rabbah (al. Hoshanah Raba) - the last day of the Feast of Tabernacles.

    Hyssop - branches were used by the Yisra'elites to place the blood of a lamb on the doorposts of their homes to keep them safe from death.

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    Ishtar - Fertility Goddess.

    Isru Chag - the day following a festival.

    Itro - a portion in the Book of Sh'mot.

    Iyar (Zif] - Eighth month of Jewish year.

    Iyov - Job

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    Jesus – See Y’Shua

    Jubilee - Every fiftieth year, land lies fallow and land ownership is totally redistributed into equal family shares.

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    Kabbalah (Hebrew: קַבָּלָה‎, literally "receiving/tradition"[1]) is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judiasm. A traditional Kabbalist in Judiasm is called a Mekubbal (Hebrew: מְקוּבָּל‎). Kabbalah's definition varies according to the tradition and aims of those following it,[2] from its religious origin as an integral part of Judiasm, to its later Christian, New Age, and Occultist syncretic adaptations. Kabbalah is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between an unchanging, eternal, and mysterious Ein Sof (infinity)[3] and the mortal and finite universe (God's creation). While it is heavily used by some denominations, it is not a religious denomination in itself. It forms the foundations of mystical religious interpretation. Kabbalah seeks to define the nature of the universe and the human being, the nature and purpose of existence, and various other ontological questions. It also presents methods to aid understanding of the concepts and thereby attain spiritual realisation.

    Kabbalat Ol Mitzvot - Literally: the acceptance of the yoke of the commandments; a convert's agreement to lead a Jewish life.

    Kabbalat Shabbat - Tehillim, readings and songs welcoming the Sabbath; the introductory portion of the Sabbath eve service.

    Kavod (al. kabowd) - #3519. kabowd, kaw-bode'; rarely kabod, kaw-bode'; from H3513; prop. weight; but only fig. in a good sense, splendor or copiousness:--glorious (-ly), glory, honour (-able). (al. Kabod)

    Kaddish (al. Kadish)- Prayer praising God. This prayer is chanted at several points in a service. In addition, it is recited at least once at each service in memory of those who have died...Prayer of sanctification of God's name.

    Kalat B'resheet - Literally: bride of B'resheet; the woman called to recite or chant the b'rakhot over the first section of the Torah on Simchat Torah.

    Kallah (al. Kalah) pl. Kallot - Bride...Conclave or retreat.

    Kaparah pl. Kaparot (al. pl. Kapparot) - expiation...Ceremony of transferring sinfulness to a scapegoat just before Yom Kippur.

    Kaporet - the covering over the Holy Ark in the Sanctuary.

    K'arah - Passover dish.

    K'turah - Avraham's wife after Sarai.

    Karath - #3772. karath, kaw-rath'; a prim. root; to cut (off, down or asunder); by impl. to destroy or consume; spec. to covenant (i.e. make an alliance or bargain, orig. by cutting flesh and passing between the pieces):--be chewed, be con- [feder-] ate, covenant, cut (down, off), destroy, fail, feller, be freed, hew (down), make a league ([covenant]), X lose, perish, X utterly, X want ... (al. Karet) - "Being cut off" from the people; Biblical punishment which might become capital or consist of early natural death.

    Karpas - A green herb like parsley or a green vegetable such as celery or watercress, symbolizing spring; one of the symbolic foods used on the seder plate.

    Kashrut - Jewish dietary laws.

    Katatome - #2699. katatome, kat-at-om-ay'; from a comp. of G2596 and temno (to cut); a cutting down (off), i.e. mutilation (ironically):--concision. Comp. G609.

    Kavanah - Literally: intentionality; referring to the spiritual attitude with which we approach worship.

    Kedushah - (Holiness) When the reader or cantor repeats the Amidah (standing prayer), the congregation rises for this antiphonal chant of a doxology from Bible verses proclaiming oneness and sanctity of the Adonai...prayer of sanctification of God's Name added to the third benediction of the amidah prayer.

    Kedushat Hayom - the benediction concerning the "sanctity of the day" included in the amidah prayers on Sabbaths and Festivals.

    Kefa - Kefa Alef - 1 Peter; Kefa Bet - 2 Peter as in the Book of Peter of the B'rit Hadashah.

    Kehunah, Kehunah Gedolah - Priesthood in the Sanctuary, High Priesthood.

    Ken Ayin Hara (Yiddish, Kinna Hurra) - Literally: May there be no evil eye. Keriah - Tearing of a garment or a symbolic black ribbon as an expression of grief in conjunction with a death.

    Ketiva Vachatima Tovah - wishes of "good inscription" on Rosh haShanah.

    Ketoret - incense offered in the Sanctuary.

    Ketubah (al. Kethubhoth) pl. Ketubot - (Writing) Traditional marriage contract, detailing duties of wife and husband, and providing money penalties for divorcement of wife...A second marriage contract.

    Ketuvim - Literally: the Writings; third section of the Bible.

    Ketz - End of Days.

    Kevah - Literally: fixed; referring to the fixed order of Jewish liturgy.

    Kevod Hamet (al. Kebod) - Honor due to the dead.

    Ki Tetze - a portion in the Book of D'varim.

    Ki Tisa - a portion in the Book of Sh'mot.

    Kiddush (al. Kidush) - Blessing recited or chanted over wine on Shabbat or festivals emphasizing their holiness....pour out first cup of wine / blessing of sanctification...by extension, a light meal after the wine.

    Kiddush Hachodesh (al. Kidush) - the sanctification of the New Moon.

    Kiddush Levanah (al. Kidush) - the blessing of sanctification over the monthly renewal of the moon.

    Kiddushin (al. Qiddushin, Kedushin) - Literally: holiness; refers both to the wedding ceremony and to the state of matrimony.

    Kinah pl. Kinot - (Lamentation) Elegy in poetic (piyyut) structure recited on Jewish days of mourning.

    Kinyan- The legal formality of symbolic delivery

    Kipah - The Hebrew term for skullcap; the Yiddish term is yarmulke.

    Kiporah - covering.

    Kislev - Third month of Jewish year.

    Kisseh Elohyim - Throne of God

    Kittel (al. Kitel) - White garment that is part of traditional Jewish burial clothes; worn by some worshipers on Yom Kippur as a reminder of mortality and a symbol of purity, and by some officiants at Rosh haShanah services and at the Passover Seder. Also worn by some grooms at their wedding.

    Klaf - Hand-written scroll placed in a mezuzah, containing D'varim 6:4-9; ll:13-21.

    Kodashim Kalim - sacrifices of minor sanctity.

    Kodesh - Literally: holy.

    Kodesh hakodhashim - room behind Holy Place. also hakodesh - the Holy Place.

    Kohelet - the Scroll of Kohelet.

    Kohen (al. Cohen) pl. Kohanim (al. pl. Cohanim) - Descendant of the ancient priestly class, the progeny of Aaron...a priest.

    Kohen haGadol (al. Cohen haGadol, Cohen Gadol] - The High Priest.

    Kol Nidrei (al. Nidrey) - Literally: al vows; prayer that begins the Yom Kippur eve service; the entire service is often called the Kol Nidrei service...a prayer and announcement of repeal of vows recited upon the advent of the Day of Atonement.

    Korech - matzah and bitter herb sandwich.

    Kosher - Ritually fit for use...permitted.

    Kri - the traditional pronunciation of words in the Torah.

    K'tiv - the traditional spelling of words in the Torah.

    Kvatter / Kvatterin - Godfather / Godmother; those who carry the baby into the Berit ceremony.

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    Ladino - Y'hudaho-Spanish; the everyday language of Sephardic Jews.

    Lag baOmer - 33rd day of 50 days of Omer.

    Lamnatze'ach Ya'ancha Hashem - Tehillim 20, recited on weekdays to mark sorrow and supplication.

    Latreia - #2999. latreia, lat-ri'-ah; from G3000; ministration of God, i.e. worship:--(divine) service.

    Lech Lecha - the third portion in the Book of B'resheet.

    Lechem - bread.

    Lechem Mishneh - two loaves required for the blessing on Sabbath and Festival meals.

    Lehitpalel - Literally: to judge oneself; the Hebrew word meaning "to pray."

    Leshanah Tovah Tikatevu - Literally: May you be inscribed [in the Book of Life] for a good year; Rosh haShanah greeting, sometimes shortened to Shanah Tovah.

    Levi - a Servant in the Sanctuary, a Sage of the Talmud.

    Leviathan - Sea monster mentioned in Iyov, of which the pious will eat at the resurrection.

    Levirate - the institution of the brother-in-law (marrying his brothers widow).

    Lulav pl. Lulavim - Palm branch, with myrtle and willow sprigs attached; with the etrog, it is the symbol of Sukkot...a palm branch taken as one of the four species on the Feast of Tabernacles.

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    M'kaddesh - The Lord who Sanctifies.

    Maamad - "Station"--groups of lay people who assisted the Levites at the daily sacrifices one week a year.

    Ma'aminim - the Believers.

    Maariv - Evening prayer service....evening prayers after sunset.

    Ma'aser pl. Ma'asrot - tithes given to the Kohen, the Levite or the poor.

    Machah - #4229. machah, maw-khaw'; a prim. root; prop. to stroke or rub; by impl. to erase; also to smooth (as if with oil), i.e. grease or make fat; also to touch, i.e. reach to:--abolish, blot out, destroy, full of marrow, put out, reach unto, X utterly, wipe (away, out).

    Machzor - (Repetition) High Holy Day prayer book, In some Orthodox synagogues, a special prayer book- -also known as a machzor--is used on the Pilgrimage Festivals.

    Maftir - Last part of Torah reading on a given Shabbos or festival...the man who is "called up" to the reading of the concluding passage.

    Magen Avot - a short summary of the Sabbath amidah prayer recited on Sabbath Eve after the silent prayer.

    Maggid - Preacher; generally itinerant, and popular because of his clever parables....narration.

    Mah Nishtanah - four questions.

    Malkot - the penalty of lashing.

    Malkut Shamayim - The Kingdom of Heaven.

    Maot Chitim (al. maoz chittin) - Literally: wheat money; money collected prior to Passover to assist the needy to celebrate the holiday and to buy special Passover foods.

    Maoz Tsur - Best-known Hanukah song. An English version of the song is entitled "Rock of Ages."

    Maror - A bitter herb such as horseradish, symbolizing the bitter plight of the enslaved Yisra'elites; one of the symbolic foods used on the seder plate.

    Marranoes - forcibly converted Jews in Spain.

    Machiach or (Mashiach)- Messiah.

    Masoretic Text - The accepted Hebrew text of Scriptures.

    Mattan Torah (al. Matan) - The giving of the law or instruction.

    Mattanot Le-Evyonim - Giving to the poor.

    Matzah pl. Matzot - Unleavened bread...The unleavened bread eaten in recollection of the hurried departure from Egypt; the eating of matzah is obligatory only at the seder.

    Mayim Hayim - Living water.

    Mazal Tov - Literally: good luck; congratulations. Mechilta - Halakhic midrash to Sh'mot.

    Medieval - Relating to or characteristic of the Middle Ages.

    Megillah (al. Megilah) pl. Megillot - Literally: scroll; there are five megillot in the Bible. The one we read on Sukkot is Kohelet, on Purim is Ester, on Pesach is Song of Songs, on Shavu'ot is Rut and on Tishah Be'av is Eikhah.

    Meni - Moon Goddess.

    Menorah pl. Menorot - Seven- or eight-branched candelabrum; people commonly refer to an eight- branched Chanukiah as a menorah...the Lamp of the Sanctuary.

    Menuhan - place of rest.

    Mesorah - the traditional essential requirements in the writing of a Torah Scroll.

    Messianic - Having to do with the Mashiach (Yeshua, Yeshua).

    Mezuzah pl. Mezuzot - (Doorpost) Ritual object consisting of a casing and a klaf that is put on the doorpost(s) of the house.

    Midat Hadin - the Divine Attribute of Justice.

    Midyan - Midian - now southern Jordan.

    Midrash pl. Midrashim - A collection of works compiled between the third and twelfth centuries that seeks out underlying truths and meanings of the Bible; the result of the process of delving into the ramifications of a biblical verse and of the ancient rabbis' reading between the lines of Scripture.

    Mikdash Me'at - Literally: a small sanctuary; refers to the home.

    Mikrah (al. Miqra) - #4744. miqra', mik-raw'; from H7121; something called out, i.e. a public meeting (the act, the persons, or the place); also a rehearsal:--assembly, calling, convocation, reading.

    Minchah pl. Menachot - from an unused root mean. to apportion, i.e. bestow; a donation; euphem. tribute; spec. a sacrificial offering (usually bloodless and voluntary):--gift, oblation, (meat) offering, present, sacrifice...afternoon prayer; name of Temple sacrifice...evening prayers during the day...a gift offering in the Sanctuary...an offering made of flour and oil.

    Minim - Sectaries; early Y'hudaho-Christians.

    Minyan - Quorum of ten adult Jews necessary for public prayer. Miqvah - #4724.

    miqra - convocation, a rehearsal.

    mikvah, mik-vaw'; fem. of H4723; a collection, i.e. (of water) a reservoir:--ditch. (al. Mikvah) - Ritual bath.

    Miqveh - #4723. miqveh, mik-veh'; or miqveh (M'lakhim Alef 10 : 28), mik-vay'; or ` miqve' (Divrei-HaYamim Bet 1 : 16), mik-vay'; from H6960; something waited for, i.e. confidence (obj. or subj.); also a collection, i.e. (of water) a pond, or (of men and horses) a caravan or drove:--abiding, gathering together, hope, linen yarn, plenty [of water], pool.

    Miryam - Mary.

    Mishkan - #4908. mishkan, mish-kawn'; from H7931; a residence (includ. a shepherd's hut, the lair of animals, fig. the grave; also the Temple); spec. the Tabernacle (prop. its wooden walls):--dwelleth, dwelling (place), habitation, tabernacle, tent....the Sanctuary Tent.

    Mishlo'ach Manot - the sending of "portions" to friends on Purim.

    Mishlai - Mishlei.

    Mishnah - Code of Jewish law edited by Rabbi Judah HaNasi about 200 CE; together with the Gemara forms the Talmud. First legal law code of basic Jewish law governing all aspects of Jewish life.

    Mishpachah - #4940. mishpachah, mish-paw-khaw'; from H8192 [comp. H8198]; a family, i.e. circle of relatives; fig. a class (of persons), a species (of animals) or sort (of things); by extens. a tribe or people:--family, kind (-red).

    Mishpatim - a portion in the Book of Sh'mot.

    Mitzrayim - Egypt.

    Mitzvah pl. Mitzvot - Literally: Commandment; a religious precept or obligation; mitzvah refers to one of the 613 commandments in the Torah....a good deed.

    Mitzvat Aseh - a commandment-to-do, a positive command.

    Mitzvat Lo Ta'aseh - a commandment-not-to-do, a prohibition.

    Mitzvot - God's Commandments.

    Mizmor Letodah - Tehillim 101 recited daily to commemorate the Thanksgiving Offering in the Sanctuary.

    Mo'ed (al. mow’ed) - #4150. mow'ed, mo-ade'; or mo'ed mo-ade'; or (fem.) mow'adah (Divrei-HaYamim Bet 8 : 13), mo-aw-daw'; from H3259; prop. an appointment, i.e. a fixed time or season; spec. a festival; conventionally a year; by implication, an assembly (as convened for a definite purpose); technically the congregation; by extension, the place of meeting; also a signal (as appointed beforehand):--appointed (sign, time), (place of, solemn) assembly, congregation, (set, solemn) feast, (appointed, due) season, solemn (-ity), synagogue, (set) time (appointed).

    Mohel pl. Mohalim - Authorized functionary performing ritual circumcision.

    Molad, Molad Halevanah pl. Moladot - the appearance of the new Moon.

    Moreh - Teacher.

    Moreh Tzaddikim - teacher of righteousness.

    Motza'ei Shabbat (al. Shabat) - the night following the Sabbath.

    Motzi (al. Hammotzee, Hamotzi) - Literally: [God] who brings forth [bread]; blessing over bread; standard blessing before meals at which bread is served...one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony.

    Muktzeh - an object forbidden to carry on the Sabbath and Festival because of its not being fit or meant for use on that day.

    Mussaf - (al. Musaf) "Added" prayer service for Sabbaths and festivals, immediately following morning prayer...the additional whole offering in the Sanctuary prescribed by the Torah for Sabbaths, Festivals and New Moons; Today: an additional Amidah prayer on said days as against the additional sacrifices.

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    Na'anu'im - the wavings of the four species on the Feast of Tabernacles.

    Nacham - #5162. nacham, naw-kham'; a prim. root; prop. to sigh, i.e. breathe strongly; by impl. to be sorry, i.e. (in a favorable sense) to pity, console, or (reflex.) rue; or (unfavorably) to avenge (oneself):--comfort (self), ease [one's self], repent (-er, -ing, self).

    Nachash Hakadomony - the Predatory Snake.

    Nachem - a prayer for consolation.

    Nachum - Nachum.

    Naga - #5060. naga', naw-gah'; a prim. root; prop. to touch, i.e. lay the hand upon (for any purpose; euphem., to lie with a woman); by impl. to reach (fig. to arrive, acquire); violently, to strike (punish, defeat, destroy, etc.):--beat, (X be able to) bring (down), cast, come (nigh), draw near (nigh), get up, happen, join, near, plague, reach (up), smite, strike, touch.

    Nasi (al. nasiy) - #5387. nasiy', naw-see'; or nasi', naw-see'; from H5375; prop. an exalted one, i.e. a king or sheik; also a rising mist:--captain, chief, cloud, governor, prince, ruler, vapour...pl. Nesi'im - head of the people, a head of a Tribe, a Prince.

    Naso - a portion in the Book of B'midbar.

    Natzal - #5337. natsal, naw-tsal'; a prim. root; to snatch away, whether in a good or a bad sense:-- X at all, defend, deliver (self), escape, X without fail, part, pluck, preserve, recover, rescue, rid, save, spoil, strip, X surely, take (out).

    Nazah - #5137. nazah, naw-zaw'; a prim. root; to spirt, i.e. besprinkle (espec. in expiation):--sprinkle.

    Nazoraeans - Judaizing Christian sect (not to be confused with Nazarenes, a general term for Christians).

    Neertzah (al. Nirtzah) - acceptance, closing prayer...the last phase of the Seder ceremony.

    Neilah - Literally: closing; concluding service of Yom Kippur...closing of the gate.

    Nesech - the libation of wine over the altar in the Sanctuary accompanying the sacrifices.

    Neta Revai - the fruit of the fourth year after planting.

    Netilat Lulav -the commandment of the four species in the Feast of Tabernacles.

    Nevi'im - Literally: the Prophets; second section of the Bible...the latter prophets.

    Niddah - Ritually unclean woman.

    Nisan (Aviv) - First (springtime) month of year, during which Passover falls.

    Nissuin (al. Nisuin) - In ancient times, the formal wedding ceremony.

    Nisuch Hamayim - the libation of water in the Sanctuary during the Feast of Tabernacles.

    Noach - Noah.

    Noachide - One who follows the covenant made with Noach.

    Nusach - liturgical melodies at services.

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    Ohel Mo'ed - the "Tent of Meeting"

    Ovadyah - Obadiah

    Oketz - the stalk of the etrog.

    Olah - Burnt offering in Temple.

    Olam Haba - (al. Habba) Literally: the world to Come; refers to the life of the soul after death.

    Olam Hazeh - the present world of toil.

    Omer - Sheaf or bushel of grain.

    Onan (al. Onen) - Mourner (between death and burial)....a mourning relative.

    Oneg Shabbat - Literally: joy of the Sabbath; reception after Friday night services, which includes refreshments, socializing, and, sometimes, Yisra'eli dancing or a discussion.

    Onkelos - A targum on the Pentateuch.

    Orlah - fruit picked during the first three years after planting which is forbidden by the torah.

    Oseif - Gathering of the Nobles.

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    Parah Adumah - Red heifer--special sacrificial animal.

    Parashah pl. Parashot - The weekly Torah portion; also called Sidrah or Sedrah or Sidra.

    Pareve - Foods containing neither meat nor milk.

    Parochet - the curtain over the Ark in the Synagogue; the curtain separating the Holy of Holies from the Hechal.

    Payes - Sidecurls worn by Ultra-Orthodox men and boys.

    Payot - corners; therefore, earlocks of hair.

    Pentateuch - the first five Books of the Bible, the Five Books of Moshe.

    Perushim - the upholders of the Oral Torah at the time of the Second Sanctuary.

    Pesach - Pesachim pl.- Passover.

    Pesach Katan - the second offering of the Paschal Lamb on the 14th of Iyar.

    Pesach Sheni - the 14th of Iyar, the offering of the Pesach Sacrifice by those who were not able to do so on the 14th of Nisan. Peshat - little meaning, literal.

    Pesikta - Book of Haggadic discourses for festivals and special Sabbaths.

    Pharisees - Religio-political faction in late Second Temple days that wanted to develop Judiasm through prayer, study of Torah, and midrashic interpretations of Torah; forerunners of the rabbis.

    P'lishti - Philistine.

    P'lishtim - Philistines.

    Phobeo - #5399. phobeo, fob-eh'-o; from G5401; to frighten, i.e. (pass.) to be alarmed; by anal. to be in awe of, i.e. revere:--be (+ sore) afraid, fear (exceedingly), reverence.

    Pidyon haben / habat - Literally: redemption of the (firstborn) son / daughter; home ceremony that takes place on the thirty-first day of a child's life.

    Piku'ach Nefesh - the care for human life.

    Pikudey - a portion in the Book of Sh'mot.

    Pinchas - a portion in the Book of B'midbar.

    Pirkey Avot - "the Ethics of the Fathers", a tractate in the Mishnah.

    Pitma - the wart of the etrog.

    Piyyut (al. piyut) pl. piyyutim (al. pl. piyutim) - Poetic prayer...liturgical poem.

    Pneuma - #4151. pneuma, pnyoo'-mah; from G4154; a current of air, i.e. breath (blast) or a breeze; by anal. or fig. a spirit, i.e. (human) the rational soul, (by impl.) vital principle, mental disposition, etc., or (superhuman) an angel, daemon, or (divine) God, Yeshua's spirit, the Ruach HaKodesh:--ghost, life, spirit (-ual, -ually), mind. Comp. G5590.

    Proselyte - Convert to Judiasm.

    pseudepigraphic - written under another name.

    P'rushim -Pharisees Religio-political faction in late Second Temple days that wanted to develop Judiasm through prayer, study of Torah, and midrashic interpretations of Torah; forerunners of the rabbis

    Purim - Literally: lots; festival that celebrates the survival of the Jewish people.

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    Qahal - #6951. qahal, kaw-hawl'; from H6950; assemblage (usually concr.):--assembly, company, congregation, multitude.

    Qehelathah - #6954. Qehelathah, keh-hay-law'-thaw, from H6950; convocation; Kehelathah, a place in the Desert:--Kehelathah.

    Qoheleth - #6953. qoheleth, ko-heh'-leth; fem. of act. part. from H6950; a (female) assembler (i.e. lecturer); abstr. preaching (used as a "nom de plume", Koheleth):--preacher.

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    Rabbi pl. Rabanim - religious authority.

    Rachatzah - washing Ur'chatz - celebrant washes, one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony Rochtzah - the phase of the Seder ceremony in which hands are washed for the meal.

    Rahab (al. Rachav) - Proud, harlot, broad. The word "Rahab" means a wall or broad place. Theis is where we get the term "broad" for a woman...False messianic kingdom.

    Ramah - Seat of Idolatry.

    Rasha pl. Rashim - The wholly wicked...iniquitous.

    Ruach HaKodesh - Holy Spirit.

    Rav - a Sage of the Talmud.

    Rav Sha'ul - Paul the Apostle.

    Re'eh - a portion in the Book of D'varim.

    Refa'enu - "Heal us..", one of the eighteen benedictions of the Amidah prayer.

    Remez - alluding to.

    Rochtzah - the phase of the Seder ceremony in which hands are washed for the meal Rachatzah - washing Ur'chatz - celebrant washes, one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony.

    Rosh haShanah - Literally: head of the year; Jewish New Year. To non-Jews this is Feast of Trumpets.

    Rosh Hodesh (al. Chodesh) - festival of the new moon.

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    Sadducees - Religio-political faction in late Second Temple days that focused on priestly functions and the sacrificial system.

    Sandak - Person who holds the baby during the Berit Milah ceremony.

    Sanhedrin - the High Court in Yerushalayim.

    Sar - #8269. sar, sar; from H8323; a head person (of any rank or class):--captain (that had rule), chief (captain), general, governor, keeper, lord, ([-task-]) master, prince (-ipal), ruler, steward.

    Sar Tzva'ot - Captain of the Hosts

    Sarai - Sarah or Sara - wife of Avraham

    Scribes - the Sages who interpreted the Torah and its Laws.

    Sebomai - #4576. sebomai, seb'-om-ahee; mid. of an appar. prim. verb; to revere, i.e. adore:--devout, religious, worship.

    Seder - Literally: order; ritual for the home celebration of the first (and second) evening(s) of Pesach...the ceremony to commemorate the Sh'mot from Egypt on Passover Eve.

    Seder Avodah (al. Abodah) - the "order of Service" that the Kohen Gadol performs in the Sanctuary on the day of Atonement.

    Sefer Torah (al. Sifrei) pl. Sefarim - Torah scroll.

    Sefirah - the "days of counting" between the Passover and Pentecost.

    Selichot - Penitential prayers.

    Selichot Service - A service of preparation for the High Holy Days, usually held at midnight on the Saturday preceding Rosh haShanah.

    Semichah pl. Semuchim - ordination, Ordained Rabbis.

    Sephardi pl. Sephardim - of Oriental Jewish communities.

    Seraphim - fiery angels.

    Seudah - Feast.

    Seudah Mafseket (al. Hemafseket) - the "meal of cessation" before a fast.

    Seudah shel Mitzvah - A festive meal that honors the observance of a mitzvah; a meal prescribed by the Torah or the Sages, same as Seudat Mitzvah.

    Seudah Shelishit (al. Shlishit) - Literally: third meal; a light meal eaten late on Shabbat afternoon...the third meal eaten on the Sabbath.

    Seudat Chavurah (al. Havra'ah, Chaburah) - Literally: meal of condolence; prepared by friends of the mourners and eaten in the house of mourning immediately following a funeral.

    Sevivon - Hebrew word for a dreidel (four-sided top used in a Hanukah game).

    Sfeka Deyoma - doubt as to the exact date of the day.

    Sha'atnez - a cloth combining wool and linen.

    Sha'ul - Saul.

    Shabbat - The Sabbath (Sephardic pronunciation).

    Shabbat B'resheet - the first Sabbath after Simchat Torah on which the portion of Bereishit is read.

    Shabbat Chazon - the Sabbath before the Ninth of Av.

    Shabbat haGadol - Literally: the Great Sabbath; the Sabbath preceding Passover.

    Shabbat Mevarchim - the Sabbath on which the forthcoming month is blessed.

    Shabbat Nachamu - the Sabbath after the Ninth of Av.

    Shabbat Shirah - "the Sabbath of Song", the Sabbath on which "the song of the sea" is read in the portion of Beshalach.

    Shabbat Shuvah - Literally: Sabbath of Return; the Sabbath between Rosh haShanah and Yom Kippur.

    Shabbat Zachor - The Sabbath immediately preceding Purim.

    Shabbaton pl. Shabbatonim - Seven High Sabbaths....sabbath program of study and celebration.

    Shabbos - The Sabbath (Ashkenazic pronunciation).

    Shachah - #7812. shachah, shaw-khaw'; a prim. root; to depress, i.e. prostrate (espec. reflex. in homage to royalty or God):--bow (self) down, crouch, fall down (flat), humbly beseech, do (make) obeisance, do reverence, make to stoop, worship.

    Shacharit (al. Shararit) - Morning Prayer. From Hebrew for "dawn"...Morning prayer service.

    Shaddai - God Almighty.

    Shakan - #7931. shakan, shaw-kan'; a prim. root [appar. akin (by transm.) to H7901 through the idea of lodging; comp. H5531, H7925]; to reside or permanently stay (lit. or fig.):--abide, continue, (cause to, make to) dwell (-er), have habitation, inhabit, lay, place, (cause to) remain, rest, set (up).

    Shaliach - agent sent as the one who sent the agent.

    Shaliach Tzibur - the precentor of the prayers in the Synagogue, the Cantor.

    Shalom - The fullness of peace and harmony.

    Shalom Zachor - first Friday following birth.

    Shalosh Seudot - The three festive meals prescribed for the Sabbath.

    Shammai (al. Schammai) - School of.

    Shammash (al. Shamash) - Literally: servant; term for the ninth candle used to light the other candles in the Chanukiah ... the beadle in the Synagogue.

    Sar Shalom - Prince of Peace

    Shavu'ot - Literally: Feast of Weeks...The Day of Pentecost , receiving of the Torah, and the beginning of the wheat harvest. Also, it represents the betrothal between Yisra'el and haAdonai.

    Shebet - #7626. shebet, shay'-bet; from an unused root prob. mean. to branch off, a scion, i.e. (lit.) a stick (for punishing, writing, fighting, ruling, walking, etc.) or (fig.) a clan:-- X correction, dart, rod, sceptre, staff, tribe.

    Shebuah (al. shabuwa) - #7620. shabuwa', shaw-boo'-ah; or shabua', shaw-boo'-ah; also (fem.) shebu'ah, sheb-oo-aw'; prop. pass. part. of H7650 as a denom. of H7651; lit. sevened, i.e. a week (spec. of years):--seven, week.

    Shechita - the slaughtering of animals for meat as prescribed by the Torah.

    She'elat Geshamim - the petition for rain.

    She'elot u-Teshuvot - questions and responses to queries on matters of Jewish law by rabbis and sages.

    Shehecheyanu - Literally: [God] who has kept us alive; this is the blessing for beginnings and other happy occasions in people's lives, such as birth and marriage. It is also said at candlelighting, Kiddush and certain other specific times during festival observances...a blessing over mitzvot which are performed once a year or over new fruit in its season.

    Shekhinah (al. Shechinah) - God's Presence in the world. - Aram. and late Hebrews, a word not in Scripture, but used by later Jews and by Christians to express the visible divine Presence, especially when resting between the cherubim over the mercy seat.

    Sheloshim - the second period of mourning; thirty-day mourning period.

    Shem - Name - haShem - the Name.

    Shem Hameforash - the Ineffable Divine Name.

    Shema - or S'hma The main statement of Jewish belief: "S'hmaa Yisra'el Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Echad" (Hear, O Yisra'el: the Lord is our God, the Lord is OneOne). D'varim 6:4-9.

    Shemini Atzeret - Literally: the eighth day of assembly; conclusion of Sukkot...The day following Sukkot and the end of that festival.

    Shemoneh Esre (al. Esray, Shmoneh Esreh) - Eighteen" - the number of blessings originally in the important part of the daily prayers recited in silence while worshipers stand--hence this name is applied to all such standing prayers, although the daily service now has nineteen and other services seven b'rakhot. Combines adoration with entreaty. Also called Amidah (standing) or simply Tefillah (prayer).

    Shenah'yim Zay'yith Yarah Sharath - Two Olive Tree Teaching Ministry

    Sheol - Afterlife; the netherworld.

    Sheva Berachot (al. Birchot) - Literally: seven b'rakhot; these are recited or chanted at a wedding ceremony prior to the sharing of a cup of wine by the Kallah and Choson.

    Shevarim - a shofar sound.

    Shevat - Fifth month of Jewish year.

    Shin - Hebrew letter (first letter of Shaddai).

    shir - sing, sang, singers.

    Shitre Erusin - A betrothal contract.

    Shivah - the first period of mourning; seven-day mourning period, the first day of which is the day of burial.

    Shivah haben - child of the week.

    Sh'lamim - peace offerings.

    Shmitah - Release--the seventh year in which the land lies fallow and debts are released or annulled...the Sabbatical year at the end of each seven year cycle.

    Sh'khem - Shechem.

    Shochet - Ritual slaughterer, required by Jewish dietary laws for the preparation of kosher meat.

    Sh'va - Sheba.

    Shofar - Trumpet made from a ram's horn...a ram's horn blown on Rosh haShanah and during the month of Elul.

    Shofar Hagadol - The Great Trumpet.

    Shome'a Tefillah (al. Tefilah) - "The One Who hears prayer.." one of the eighteen benedictions of the Amidah.

    Shomer - Literally: guardian; person who remains with the deceased so that the body is never left alone prior to burial.

    Shovavim Tat - a series of winter weeks whose Mondays and Thursdays are observed as fast days.

    Shuckle - To sway during prayer.

    Shulchan Aruch - code of law applicable to today...the Book of codified Jewish Law, by Rabbi Yosef Karo.

    Shulchan Orech - table set for meal...one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony.

    Shushan Purim - Purim celebration on Adar 15 by cities walled at the time of Y'hoshua.

    Sicarii - A fanatic group of Zealots literally meaning cut throats as they were involved in political assassination of both Jews and Romans.

    Siddur (al. Sidur) pl. Siddurim - Prayer book....daily and sabbath prayer book.

    Sidra pl. Sedarim (al. pl. Sidrot) - Bible portion of the week, read on Sabbath.

    Sifra (al. Sifre) - Halakhic midrashim to Vayikra, B'midbar, D'varim.

    Siloam - A pool of water in Yerushalayim.

    Simchah - Literally: joy; a happy event.

    Simchat Torah - Literally: Rejoicing in the Torah; holiday marking the conclusion of the yearly cycle of Torah readings and the beginning of the new cycle; the final fall holiday.

    Sivan - Ninth month of the Jewish year.

    Siyum - the completion of the study of a Talmudic tractate. Sod - mystery.

    Sofer pl. Soferim (al. pl. Sofrim) - A specially trained scribe.

    Sotah - a woman suspected of adultery.

    S'phirah pl. S'phirot - Emanation(s) from the ultimate, infinite, indefinable God-head toward the palpable world; aspects of God.

    Sukkot (al. Sukah) pl. Sukkot (al. pl. Sukot) - Literally: booths; name of the festival that commemorates the Yisra'elites' wanderings in the desert after leaving Egypt...The Feast of Tabernacles or Booths.

    Sunagoge - #4864. sunagoge, soon-ag-o-gay'; from (the redupl. form of) G4863; an assemblage of persons; spec. a Jewish "synagogue" (the meeting or the place); by anal. a Christian church:--assembly, congregation, synagogue.

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    Ta'am Ha'elyon - the "upper" mode of cantilation of the passage of the Ten Commandments.

    Taanit - A section of the Talmud on Fasts...a fast day.

    Taanit Chalom - a fast over a bad dream.

    Tachanun - a prayer of supplication.

    Tachath - #8478. tachath, takh'-ath; from the same as H8430; the bottom (as depressed); only adv. below (often with prep. pref. underneath), in lieu of, etc.:--as, beneath, X flat, in (-stead), (same) place (where . . . is), room, for . . . sake, stead of, under, X unto, X when . . . was mine, whereas, [where-] fore, with.

    Tachrichim - Burial shrouds.

    Tachtiy - #8482. tachtiy, takh-tee'; from H8478; lower most; as noun (fem. plur.) the depths (fig. a pit, the womb):--low (parts, -er, -er parts, -est), nether (part).

    Taharah - Ritual purification of the deceased in preparation for burial....washing of the dead body.

    Takhrikhim - Shrouds prescribed by Jewish law.

    Tal - (Dew) The prayer for dew (in Palestine) recited on first day of Passover.

    Tallit (al. Talit) - Prayer shawl with ceremonial fringes on four corners.

    Tallit Katan (al. Talit) - A small prayer shawl; a special undershirt with four corners each bearing tzitziyot.

    Talmid pl. Talmidim - student, disciple.

    Talmid Chacham - a scholar of the Torah.

    Talmud - Comprised of both the Mishnah and Gemara, the Talmud is the collected legal and ethical discussions of the rabbis, edited around the year 500 CE.

    Tamid - the daily sacrifice in the Sanctuary.

    Tammuz - Tenth month on the Jewish civil calendar - Modern June or July The month of Tammuz begins the "season" (tekufah) of the summer. The three months of this season, Tammuz, Av and Elul, correspond to the three tribes of the camp of Reuben--Reuben, Simeon and Gad--who were situated to the south). Tamuz is the month of the sin of the golden calf, which resulted in the breaking of the Tablets. On that very day, the 17th of Tamuz, begins the three week period (ending on the 9th of Av) which commemorates the destruction of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem.

    Tana pl. Tannaim (al. pl. Tana'im) - rabbis in the Mishnaic period.

    Tanakh - Tanakh.

    Targum pl. Targumim - (Translation) Traditionally the name given the Aramaic translation of the Bible, read to the populace in Babylonian periods. The custom of reading services in Aramaic following the Hebrew goes back to hundreds of years before the great diaspora. Except for some interpolations and paraphrases, the Targum Bavli, also known as the Targum Onkelos, is a very faithful translation. Less faithful to the text are the Targum Yerushalmi and others of fragmentary character.

    Tashlich - Traditional Rosh haShanah afternoon ceremony in which individuals symbolically cast their sins (crumbs) into a body of water...the casting away of sin.

    Tefilin - Prayer boxes worn during weekday morning worship. Tefillah (al. Tefilah) - Literally: prayer; also refers to the central group of prayers in each service, alternatively called the Amidah or Shemoneh Esre.

    Tefillah Zakah (al. Tefilah) - "a prayer of purity" recited upon the advent of Yom Kippur before Kol Nidrey.

    Teki'ah - a shofar sound.

    Tekufah pl. Tekufot - one of the four seasons of the year.

    Telos - #5056. telos, tel'-os; from a prim. tello (to set out for a definite point or goal); prop. the point aimed at as a limit, i.e. (by impl.) the conclusion of an act or state (termination [lit., fig. or indef.], result [immed., ultimate or prophetic], purpose); spec. an impost or levy (as paid):--+ continual, custom, end (-ing), finally, uttermost. Comp. G5411.

    Teruah - An awakening blast.

    Teshuvah - Literally: turning or returning; a Hebrew term for repentance...Repentance from sin, spiritual reawakening. A desire to strengthen the connection between oneself and the sacred.

    Tetragrammaton - the four Hebrew letters usually transliterated YHWH or YHVH that form a biblical proper name of God.

    Tetzaveh - a portion in the Book of Sh'mot.

    Tevet - Fourth month of the Jewish year.

    Tevilah - Literally: immersion...immersing in a ritual bath. Therapeutae - Sternly ascetic Jewish party whose vieewss and practices were kindred to the Essenes in Palestine.

    Tikkun Chatzot (al. Tikun) - a prayer of lamentation over the destruction of the Sanctuary, recited at midnight.

    Tikkun Leil Shavu'ot (al. Tikun) - Literally: service of the night of Shavu'ot.

    Tikkun Olam (al. Tikun) - Repairing our broken world.

    Tikkun Soferim (al. Tikun) (al. Sofrim) - the set of rules for the writing of a Torah Scroll.

    Tishah Be'av - The ninth day of the month of Av; a day of mourning for the destruction of the ancient Temple in Yerushalayim.

    Tishri (al. Tishrei) (Ethanim) - First month of Jewish year. Titkabel - a verse in the kadish, "Let the prayers of Yisra'el be accepted.." Todah - the thanksgiving offering in the Sancttuaary.

    Tohuw - #8414. tohuw, to'-hoo; from an unused root mean. to lie waste; a desolation (of surface), i.e. desert; fig. a worthless thing; adv. in vain:--confusion, empty place, without form, nothing, (thing of) nought, vain, vanity, waste, wilderness.

    Toldah (al. towledah) - #8435. towledah, to-led-aw'; or toledah, to-led-aw'; from H3205; (plur. only) descent, i.e. family; (fig.) history:--birth, generations.

    Torah - Literally: teaching; in its most narrow sense, it is the first five Books of the Bible, hand-written on a parchment scroll; in its broadest sense, it is all of Judiasm, which flows from those Books...Instruction (teaching) or law.

    Tosefta (al. Tocefta) - (Supplement) Anthology of tannaitic text parallel to Mishnah, but outside Mishnaic canon, and more expansive. Rabbi Nechemyah, second century, began the work; in the third century it was continued by Hiyya ben Aba and Oshaiah.

    Treif (al. Trefah) - Literally: torn apart; food that is not ritually fit. It is the opposite of kosher.

    Tru'ah - a shofar sound.

    Trumah - a heave offering, contribution...the seventh portion in the Book of Sh'mot.

    Tsaphoon - hidden.

    Tu Bishvat - Fifteenth day of the month of Shevat; a minor holiday known as the New Year of the Trees, observed by planting trees.

    Tzaddik pl. Tzaddikim (al. Tzadik) (al. pl. Tzadikim) - Chasidic sages (Sadducee) were so called; they were often raised by their followers to the status of direct intermediaries with God, super-human miracle workers...a just man, righteous, upright.

    Tzadokim - Sadducees

    Tzedokim - Sadducees.

    Tzafun - the phase of the Seder ceremony in which the hidden afikoman is eaten.

    Tzedakah (al. Tsedakah) - Literally: justice or righteousness; the Hebrew word we use for charity and charitable acts.

    Tzidkatcha Tzedek - verses recited after the minchah prayer on Shabat.

    Tziduk Hadin - a prayer of accepting God's Judgment.

    Tzitzit pl. Tzitziyot - Ceremonially knotted fringes to be worn on all four-cornered garments.

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    Untaneh Tokef - a passage describing Heavenly Judgment added to prayer on Rosh haShanah and Yom Kippur.

    Ur'chatz - celebrant washes, one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony Rachatzah - washing Rochtzah - the phase of the Seder ceremony in which hands are washed for the meal.

    Ushpizin - the Seven Shepherds of Yisra'el who "visit" every Jew's Sukah on the Feast of Tabernacles.

    Uva Letzion - a prayer composed of a selection of Scriptural verses.

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    Va'era - the second portion in the Book of Sh'mot.

    Va'etchanan - the second portion in the Book of D'varim.

    Vav - Hebrew letter.

    Vayechal - a paragraph from Sh'mot chapter 32 and 34 read on a public fast. Vayelech - a portion in the Book of D'varim.

    Vayechi - the last portion in the Book of B'resheet.

    Ve'ahavta - Literally: and you shall love; the prayer from D'varim 6:5-9, that obligates Jews to love God and to teach Judiasm to future generations; part of the Shema.

    Velamalshinim - a passage relating to slanderers and informers, prescribed as a nineteenth brachah added to the eighteen benedictions of the amidah prayer.

    Vezot Habrachah - the last portion in the Torah.

    Vidui - confession.

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    Ya'aleh Veyavo - a passage added to the amidah prayer and to the Grace after the Meal on Festivals and New Moons when additional sacrifices were offered in the Sanctuary.

    Yachatz - The breaking of the middle matzah of the ceremonial matzot during a Passover seder...one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony.

    yada - worship.

    Yahrzeit - a day of memorial.

    Yamin Noraim (al. Yamim) - Literally: The Days of Awe (Awesome Days); the ten-day period beginning with Rosh haShanah and ending with Yom Kippur.

    Yarden - Jordan

    Yarmulke - The Yiddish term for skullcap; the Hebrew term is kipah.

    Yasha - Savior.

    Yavah - Eve.

    Yavam - Husband's brother upon whom devolved the duty of marrying the former's widow if left without children....the brother-in-law.

    Yavneh - A city that became the location of an academy and a central focus for the Jews once the Romans destroyed Yerushalayim.

    Yebamah - Under Biblical laws, childless widow who was commanded to marry late husband's brother, so that a child might be named after the departed.

    Yerikho - Jericho

    Yerushalayim - Jerusalem

    Yesha'yahu - Isaiah

    Yeshivah pl. Yeshivot - Torah academy.

    Yeshooah - salvation.

    Yeshua Hebrew name meaning salvation (same as Jesus).

    Y'hudah - Judah

    Yetzer - Impulse.

    Yetzer haRa - Impulse toward evil.

    Yetzer haTov - Impulse toward good.

    Yichud - Time spent alone together by the bride and groom immediately after the wedding ceremony...Room entered by bride and groom where the two, in the consummation of the marriage, become one.

    Yishai - Jesse

    Yishma'el - Ishmael

    Yirmeyahu - Jeremiah

    Yitro - the sixth portion in the Book of Sh'mot.

    Yisra'el - (yis-raw-ale') Also Yisra'elites - Israel

    Yizkor - ("May He remember") Prayers for the departed, recited on Yom Kippur, Shemini Atzeret, last day of Passover, second day of Shavu'ot.

    Yod - Hebrew letter.

    Yo'el - Joel

    Yom - Hebrew word for "day".

    Yom haDin - Literally: Day of Judgment; one of the names for Rosh haShanah.

    Yom haPeduth - The Day of Redemption.

    Yom haZikkaron - Literally: The Day of Remembrance; one of the names for Rosh haShanah.

    Yom Kippur (al. Kipur) - Literally: The Day of Atonement.

    Yom Kippur Katan (al. Kipur) - the eve of a New Moon, a "little" Day of Atonement.

    Yom Rishon - first day of the week.

    Yom Teruah (Rosh haShanah) - The Feast of Trumpets - Day of Awakening Blast - Day of Blowing.

    Yom Tov pl. Yamim Tovim - a Festival Day, holiday.

    Yoma - A tractate of the Mishnah on Yom Kippur.

    Yoma Arichta - one "long" day, two days considered as one.

    Yosef - Joseph.

    Yotzrot - liturgical poems added to the shacharit prayer.

    Yovel - a Jubilee year at the end of a fifty year cycle.

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    Zaqen - #2205. zaqen, zaw-kane'; from H2204; old:--aged, ancient (man), elder (-est), old (man, men and . . . women), senator.

    Zeman Mattan Toratenu (al. Matan) - Literally: the Season of the Giving of Our Torah; another name for Shavu'ot.

    Zeman Simchatenu - Literally: the Season of Our Joy; another name for Sukkot.

    Zeroah - "Arm". A roasted shankbone burned or scorched, which is one of the items on the Seder plate. A substitute for those who could'nt come to Yerushalayim to make a sacrifice.

    Zikhrnot - A portion of the Rosh haShanah service that deals with divine remembrance.

    Zikkaron - A Memorial.

    Zionism - The belief that there should be a Jewish national homeland in the historic land of Yisra'el.

    Z'roah Adonai - Arm of haAdonai.


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    The Books of the Original Testament

    B'midbar - Numbers

    B'resheet - Genesis

    Havakkuk - Havakuk

    Chumash Hapikudim - The Book of B'midbar

    Divrei-HaYamim Alef - 1 Chronicles

    Divrei-HaYamim Bet - 2 Chronicles

    Echah - Eikhah - read on Tishah Be'av.

    Ester - Ester - read on Purim.

    Hoshea - Hosea

    Yirmeyahu - Jeremiah

    Yonah - Jonah

    Kohelet - Ecclesiastes - read on Sukkot.

    Mal'akhi - Malachi

    M’lakhim Alef or Melachim Alef-I Kings

    M’lakhim Bet or Melachim Bet- II Kings

    Mishlei (al. Mishley al. Mishlev) - Proverbs

    Nechemyah - Nehemiah

    Rut - Rut - read on Shavu'ot.

    Shir HaShirim - Song of Songs (Song of Solomon)- read on Pesach.

    Sh'mot - Exodus

    Sh'mu'el - Samuel

    Sh'mu'el Alef - I Samuel

    Sh'mu'el Bet - 2 Samuel

    Shof'tim (al. Shofetim) - Judges

    Shir-HaShirim - Song of Solomon

    Tehillim (al. Tehilim) - Psalm

    Vayikra - Leviticus

    Z'kharyah - Zechariah


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    Aharon - Aaron

    Avraham - Abraham

    Balshatzar - Belshazzar, King of Babylonia

    Chavakuk - Havakuk

    Eliyahu - Elijah

    Esav - Esau

    Ester - Esther

    Hoshea - Hosea

    Yirmeyahu - Jeremiah

    Mattityahu - Hebrew name for Matthew

    Menasheh - Manasseh

    Moshe - Hebrew name of Moses

    Nechemyah - Nehemiah

    Rechavam - Rehoboam, King of Judah

    Rivkah - Rebecca

    Rut - Ruth

    Shimshon - Samson

    Shlomo - Solomon

    Sh'mu'el - Samuel

    Tzidkiyahu - Zedekiah, King of Judah

    Yasha - Deliverer, Savior

    Yirmeyahu - Jeremiah

    Yitz'chak (al. Itzchak) - Hebrew name for Isaac

    Ya'akov – Jacob or James

    Yechezk'el - Ezekiel

    Yechoniah - Jeconiah, King of Judah

    Y’hoshua - Joshua

    Yerovam - Jeroboam, King of Yisra'el

    Yochanan - Hebrew name for John. Yochanan Alef - 1 John, Yochanan Bet - 2 John in the Gospels

    Yokshan - Jokshan

    Yonah - Jonah


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    Asher - the Tribe of Asher

    Binyamin - the Tribe of Benjamin

    Efrayim - the Tribe of Ephraim

    Issachar - the Tribe of Issachar

    Levi - the Tribe of Levi

    Menashe - the Tribe of Menashe

    Reuven - the Tribe of Reuben

    Shimon - the Tribe of Simeon

    Yehudah - the Tribe of Judah

    Zevulun - the Tribe of Zebulun - Dan, Gad, Naphtali, Yosef


    Compiled by Levi Avi'el ben Avraham - 1997

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